Governments and companies across Europe and worldwide are confronted with depletion of natural resources due to, among others, their unsustainable use, increased global competitiveness, increasing population, and other challenging environmental and economic issues. Promoting the sustainable growth of dynamic bio-economy sectors will contribute to an innovative, resource efficient and competitive society in transition from a fossil fuelbased society to a bio-based one. Bio-based products represent a great opportunity to reconcile sustainable longterm growth with environmental protection through the prudent use of renewable resources for industrial purposes. However, managing those resources in a sustainable manner implies facing major challenges. In this context, sustainability schemes and standards play a key role in ensuring a clear and evidence-based view ofenvironmental, economic and social impacts. Sustainability assessment schemes are crucial for the development,implementation and management of effective regulatory frameworks incorporating the principle of the circular economy, with a focus on end-of-life and after use analysis.